The new policy for open access in the post-2014 Research Excellence Framework (REF) has been officially announced.
In a significant boost to the global movement for Open Access to research publications, the University of California has announced the adoption of an Open Access Policy.
With the mandates of Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena and Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, ROARMAP has now passed the 200 mark. Many more are on the way. Please do register yours, if it is not yet registered.
26/05/2011 Stevan Harnad wrote the following essay in 1987 while at Princeton just as the Internet we know coalesced into being...
A new study from the University of Georgia finds that open access legal scholarship can expect to receive more than 50% more citations than non-open access legal writings.
09/03/2011The ROARMAP Registry of Green Open Access Mandates has been upgraded: http://roarmap.eprints.org/
With University of North Texas's mandate (approved by UNT Faculty Senate March 9 2011) there are now 193 Green OA Mandates by institutions and funders worldwide (plus 75 thesis mandates). This would be an opportune time for you to register your mandate, if it is not registered already.
The graph showing the cumulative growth of OA mandates over the last 9 years can be found on the EOS (Enabling Open Scholarship) and OASIS sites.
From early 2011 the graph will be generated automatically by EPrints' ROARMAP service: http://roarmap.eprints.org It will be announced shortly when that site replaces http://www.eprints.org/openaccess/policysignup/ as the place to register new mandates by institutions, funders and departments as well as the place to find the up-to-date version of the graph for advocacy work.
Finally, the growth of policies during open Access Week 2010 was monitored and is recorded here: http://bit.ly/anUWms and here.
The Web is becoming humankind's Cognitive Commons, where knowledge is created and curated collaboratively. We trace its origins from the advent of language around 300,000 years ago to a recent series of milestones to which the University of Southampton has contributed, helping Open Access (OA) Institutional Repositories (IRs), OA IR contents, and OA mandates to grow through the posting of the Subversive Proposal in 1994, the creation of CogPrints in 1997, the OpCit citation-linking project in 1999, the creation of the Eprints IR software in 2000, the Citebase citation-linking engine in 2001, the ROAR repository in 2002, the adoption and promotion of OA mandates (beginning with the ECS Southampton mandate, the world's first, in 2002), the creation or the ROARMAP mandates registry in 2003, and the ongoing Bibliography of the Open Access Impact Advantage since 2004.
Eight new Green OA mandates bring ROARMAP's total institutional/departmental/funder mandates to 182 -- for a grand total of 252 if we include the 70 thesis mandates. (More are coming soon, especially from Portugal.)
PORTUGAL: Universidade de Lisboa SPAIN: Universidad Politécnica de Madrid USA: United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
USA: Harvard Divinity School USA: Arizona State University Libraries
ITALY: Università degli Studi di Salerno USA: Virginia Tech USA: San Jose State University
For universities, research institutions, research funders, libraries and governments worldwide, the principal site for Open Access policy-making guidance is now:
1. EnablingOpenScholarship (EOS)
Other valuable sites for guidance on OA policy-making include:
2. Open Access Scholarly Information Sourcebook (OASIS)
3. SPARC Campus Open Access Policies
4. EPrints Open Access
5. ROARMAP Registry of Open Access Repository Material Archiving Policies
6. American Scientist Open Access Forum (AmSciForum)
7. Open Access Archivangelism
8. OSI Self-Archiving FAQ
Nov 4 Athens, Greece: "The One Sure Way to OA" At: 19th Hellenic Conference of Academic Libraries, "Scientific communities and libraries in a world of social networking and synergies," Panteion University, Athens, Greece
16-17 November, Uppsala, Sweden: "Scholarly/Scientific Impact Metrics in the Open Access Era" At: Workshop on Open Archives and their Significance in the Communication of Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
6 December, Copenhagen, Denmark: "The Open Access Paradigm: What? Where? When? Why? How?" At: UNESCO Conference on Open Access - Global and Danish Challenges. Ministry of Education.
13-14 December, Cologne, Germany: "OA, OA self-archiving, OA publishing, and data archiving" At: Expert Conference on Open Access and Open Data, German National
Library of Medicine.
The OA Week Mandate Challenge generated 7 institutional mandates, 1 multi-institutional mandate, 3 departmental mandates, 2 proposed departmental mandates, and 3 thesis mandates for a total of 16 in less than two weeks! The OA Week Mandate Challenge generated 7 institutional mandates, 1 multi-institutional mandate, 3 departmental mandates, 2 proposed departmental mandates, and 3 thesis mandates for a total of 16 in less than two weeks!
Please continue registering proposed and adopted OA mandates in ROARMAP. Alma Swan's global updates of the mandate growth curve will continue to appear on EOS and OASIS.
EPrints, the first software that made it possible for institutions to create repositories in which to self-archive their research papers online, celebrates its 10th birthday next week during Open Access Week.
University of Southampton ECS/EPrints is launching a week-long Open Access Mandate Adoption Challenge for OA Week.
Representatives of universities, research institutions and research funders the world over that have adopted (or are planning to adopt) an OA mandate are invited to register their policy in ROARMAP (the Registry of Open Access Material Archiving Policies) as a show of force during OA week, setting an example to encourage other institutions and funders worldwide to do likewise.
If you know of an OA mandate -- already adopted or proposed -- that has not yet been registered in ROARMAP, please register it (or encourage a relevant official to register it).
Progress in mandate growth during OA week will be charted by Dr. Alma Swan in OASIS (Open Access Information Sourcebook) and EOS (EnablingOpenScholarship).
Register your mandate in ROARMAP HERE
15/09/2010/ Eight more Green OA self-archiving mandates have been registered in ROARMAP since June, bringing the worldwide total to 170 (96 institutional mandates, 24 departmental mandates and 26 funder mandates): Swedish Research Council Formas (SWEDEN) Central Scientific Library of V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University (UKRAINE) Universidade Aberta (PORTUGAL) Instituto Politécnico de Bragança (PORTUGAL) University of Surrey (UK) Erasmus University Rotterdam (NETHERLANDS) Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada (CANADA) Institut français de recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (Ifremer) (FRANCE)
Professor Stevan Harnad, one of the pioneers of the Open Access (OA) movement worldwide, will be reporting on metrics to evaluate the impact of peer-reviewed research papers, at three conferences in Europe this month.
The University of Southampton’s School of Electronics and Computer Science (ECS) EPrints repository of research publications is now one of the top ten in the world, according to the official world ranking of institutional repositories (published this week).
Video to help design and promote university Green OA Self-Archiving Mandates.
The Royal Society is fully green again, endorsing unembargoed OA self-archiving of the author's final draft, immediately upon acceptance for publication, thereby reinstating the world's most venerable publisher on the side of the angels, where it belonged all along, historically.
In U Liège's Green Open Access Self-Archiving Mandate, the institutional repository, ORBi, was designated the official means of submitting publications for performance review. This greatly accelerated and enhanced the success of the mandate. All universities are urged to emulate this wise and productive policy.
Danish Open Access Committee recommends that all institutions that do research and/or disseminate research [provide] free access to the results of publicly funded research.
Open Access to scientific communication/Libre Accès à la communication scientifique by Hélène BOSC and Hans Dillaerts Summarises the main current lines of information (in France and abroad) and reports what seems to be particularly noteworthy .
University of North Texas is hosting an Open Access Symposium Tuesday, May 18, 2010 with nationally and internationally recognized leaders in the open access initiative. The symposium is intended as a catalyst to move UNT and other academic institutions in Texas forward in their consideration of institutional open access policies. The UNT Open Access Policy Committee has just completed a first complete draft of a policy for open access to scholarly works at the University of North Texas: The Policy on Open Access to Scholarly Works.
The Senate of Concordia University in Montreal has just approved Canada's 1st university-wide Green OA mandate deposit all peer-reviewed research articles in Concordia's EPrints Institutional Repository, Spectrum. (This is Canada's 11th Green OA mandate -- the others were two departmental mandates and eight funder mandates-- and the world's 157th. See ROARMAP.)
A new report launched yesterday (25 February) and written by Dr Alma Swan of the University of Southampton shows how universities can work out how much they could save on their profit and loss accounts as well as increasing their contribution to UK plc when they share their research papers through Open Access.
"Until and unless universal Open Access prevails on the planet, my words are better dubbed profitless than prophetic," responds Professor Stevan Harnad, University of Southampton's impatient archivangelist, to being dubbed "A Prophet Whose Time Has Come" in Information Today's February cover story, an interview by the chronicler of the Open Access movement, Richard Poynder.
Royal Holloway's Open Access Publications Policy used the University of Stirling as a starting point:
"All journal articles... are to be self-archived in the University’s Digital Research Repository... Articles are to be submitted immediately upon acceptance for publication. The author's final accepted draft should be submitted."
Please register your own university's mandate in ROARMAP too, to track progress and to encourage other universities to adopt mandates of their own.
Professor Steven Hyman, Provost of Harvard, the first US University to mandate Open Access, has submitted such a spot-on, point for point response to President Obama’s Request for Information on Public Access Policy that if his words are heeded, the beneficiaries will not only be US research progress and the US tax-paying public, by whom US research is funded and for whose benefit it is conducted, but research progress and its public benefits planet-wide, as US policy is globally reciprocated.
Professor Hyman's every point has a special salience, and attests to the minute attention and keen insight into the subtle details of Open Access that went into the preparation of this invaluable set of recommendations.
Articles whose authors make them Open Access (OA) by self-archiving them online are cited significantly more than articles accessible only to subscribers. Some have suggested that this "OA Advantage" may be just a self-selection bias from authors preferentially make higher-quality articles OA. A systematic comparison of self-selective self-archiving with mandatory self-archiving revealed that the OA Advantage is just as high for both. The advantage is also greater for the more citeable articles, not because of a quality bias from authors self-selecting what to make OA, but because of a quality advantage, from users self-selecting what to use and cite, freed by OA from the constraints of selective accessibility to subscribers only. Preprint.
With the adoption of Abertay Dundee's and Dublin Institute of Technology's Green Open Access Self-Archiving Mandates, the worldwide total at the end of 2009 comes to 139 -- except if a few more get registered in ROARMAP before 1 January 2010...
Please also sign the OA petition in the Deutscher Bundestag (Deadline December 22). It complements the US proposal to mandate OA.
Dec 10 2009 begins the first of three comment periods for President Obama's OSTP Public Forum on How Best to Make Federally Funded Research Results Available For Free. Comments will be in three phases:
Implementation (Dec. 10 to 20): Which Federal agencies are good candidates to adopt Public Access policies? What variables (field of science, proportion of research funded by public or private entities, etc.) should affect how public access is implemented at various agencies, including the maximum length of time between publication and public release?
Please do comment at the OSTP site (you'll need to register first).
26 Finnish Universities of Applied Science have mandated Green OA Self-Archiving, bringing the worldwide total in ROARMAP to 137 (along with a 29th from from U. Northern Colorado Library Faculty). Finland now has a total of 28 mandates: This is currently the highest number of mandates per country, proportionately
Latest Green Open Access Mandates in ROARMAP:
Oberlin College (institutional)
University of Kansas (institutional total now 51)
Brigham Young University 1, 2 (departmental total now 16)
Institutional + Departmental + Funder: 109
University of Central Florida (thesis total now 37)
All mandates: 146 adopted (15 more proposed)
‘It is only through Open Access that research can be used, applied and built upon by all its intended users, rather than only those whose institutions can afford to subscribe to the journal in which it happens to be published’, says ECS Professor Stevan Harnad, commenting on a major article in today’s Times Higher Education.
With mandates 99-101 registered in ROARMAP, Green OA Self-Archiving Mandates have now passed the 100 mark -- seven years after they began, in 2002, with the very first one (University of Southampton's School of Electronics and Computer Science). The pace has at last picked up, especially since Harvard's mandate(s) last year, since which the number has doubled:
#99 (funder, Sweden) Swedish Research Council
#100 (institution, UK) University of Salford
#101 (institution, US) National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)
We will be celebrating the Salford mandate (because it is a milestone, the 100th) but stay tuned as there are rumors several more mandates will be announced during next week's Open Access Week.
If your institution or funder has one that is not yet registered in ROARMAP, please do register it now!
The UK's DEPOT is an OA Repository for researchers whose institutions do not yet have an Institutional Repository (IR) (or who do not have an institutional affiliation), so that they can deposit their refereed research and make it OA today. DEPOT hosts the deposits and provides access and can export them to the researcher's own IR as soon as there is one. DEPOT, formerly hosting only UK deposits, has now been internationalized, in honour of OA Week: Researchers from any country may now deposit if they do not yet have an IR.
"Grasping What is Already Within Immediate Reach: Universal Open Access Mandates" Stevan Harnad
Presented at Access2009 in Charlottetown PEI -- Video Part I -- Video Part II
Feel free to use video to promote Green Open Access Mandates.
And please register your institution's Open Access Mandate in ROARMAP
Open and Shut, 26 September 2009
"The recent launch of the Compact for Open-Access Publishing Equity (COPE) has attracted both plaudits (e.g. here and here) and criticism (e. g. here and here). -- What is COPE? It is..." (click here to continue).
Video of Stevan Harnad's "The Open Access Movement: Integrating Universities' ETD-Deposit and Research-Deposit Mandates, Repositories and Metrics"
Presented at ETD2009 "Bridging the Knowledge Divide"
ENABLING OPEN SCHOLARSHIP (EOS), a new organisation for senior management in universities and research institutions, has been launched today. As we rapidly approach 100 formal, mandatory, policies on Open Access from universities, research institutes and research funders a group of senior directors of universities and research institutes have come together to launch a new forum for the promotion of the principles and practices of open scholarship. For more information contact the convenor: Dr Alma Swan +44 1392 879702
OA Self-Archiving Mandate: University of Tampere
National Science Library, Chinese Academy of Sciences
"NSL... policy... mandates the NSL members to archive... article[s] to the NSL-IR 1 month after the article was published. The articles submitted by the NSL members will be one of the main evidences and references for the members’ final year performance evaluation, which impacts on the salaries and other treatments of the faculties and staffs. The archiving policy also stipulates the dissemination principles and the mission of NSL-IR. Secondly, it is the related addendums. We drafted series of addendums, including Copyright License Addendums."
University of Leicester
University of Westminster
OA Self-Archiving Policy: Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA)
Full list of institutions
Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA)
Institution's/Department's OA Eprint Archives
[growth data] http://real.mtak.hu
Funder's OA Self-Archiving Policy
The worldwide Open Access movement, the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI), began in Budapest in 2001, under the sponsorship of George Soros's Open Society Institute.
OA Self-Archiving Policy: Department of Media and Communication, Coventry University
Full list of institutions
Department of Media and Communication
Institution's/Department's OA Eprint Archives
[growth data] https://curve.coventry.ac.uk/cu/logon.do
Department's OA Self-Archiving Policy
Three new institutional and faculty mandates plus one new funder mandate brings it to 90 worldwide: Harvard School of Education, Roehampton University, Université de Genève, US Institute of Education Sciences (IES) and University of Kansas.
Also, the call for registering thesis mandates in ROARMAP has already resulted in the registration of 29 thesis mandates (bringing total mandates now to 119), but please register your mandate too: This is a retrospective call, as there have been open access thesis deposit mandates for several years not and ROARMAP has only now begun registering them alongside refereed research deposit mandates.
And as if that weren't enough: the US omnibus Federal Research Public Access Act (FRPAA) to extend Green OA mandates to all the major US research funders has been re-introduced in Congress.
ROARMAP: full list of institutions
NORWAY institutional-mandate University of Bergen
Institution's OA Eprint Archives: Bergen Open Research Archive (BORA) [growth data]
Institution's OA Self-Archiving Policy: ID/OA-policy
With the announcement today (Wednesday 3 June) that University College London has just adopted the UK's 22nd (and the world's 84th) mandate to make all of its research output Open Access (by depositing it in UCL's Institutional Repository, UCL Eprints), it is clear that the United Kingdom continues to lead the world in Open Access.
A repository which will make it possible for colleges and individuals in the arts to store and present their work in a creative way will be unveiled tomorrow (Wednesday 3 June) at the Whitechapel Gallery, London.
ETD 2009 June 10, Pittsburgh
12th International Symposium on Electronic Theses and Dissertations:
Keynote: Stevan Harnad
Integrating University Thesis and Research Deposit Mandates
Full text: PDF
Appendices: Harnad PowerPoint slides
On 27th September 2009 the EPrints Preservation Team along with some of the Planets Team will be giving a one day Tutorial/Workshop entitled Digital Preservation: Logical and bit-stream preservation using Plato, EPrints and the Cloud. This tutorial will be a one day event held at the start of the European Conference on Digital Libraries 2009 (ECDL2009) in Corfu.
The day will be split into two parts with morning will be dedicated to presentations on the importance of preservation, why you should have a preservation policy and introduce technologies which could help you both design that policy as well as enact it. In the afternoon delegates will be able to get hands on experience with some of the tools discussed in the morning session including the Plato preservation planning tool from Planets and the new features in EPrints 3.2 which allow you to build preservation into your digital repository.
This workshop will be an excellent event with your chance to meet with one of the many partners which the EPrints Preservation Team has been in constant communication with over the past few years. For more information and registration see the ECDL website here.
See you in Corfu!
Dr Leslie Carr promoted EPrints as a practical solution for business management within US institutions when he spoke this week in Atlanta, USA.
Gustavus Adolpus College: Library Faculty (US departmental-mandate)
Institution's/Department's OA Self-Archiving Policy
University of Oregon (UO) has just registered (in ROARMAP) UO's second Green Open Access (OA) self-archiving mandate in a week -- the world's 80th Green OA mandate overall. This is also the world's 9th departmental mandate, again confirming Arthur Sale's sage advice about the "patchwork mandate" strategy: If your institution has not yet managed to reach consensus on adopting a university-wide OA mandate, don't wait! Go ahead and adopt departmental mandates, for which consensus can be reached more quickly and easily.
University of Calgary, Library and Cultural Resources (CANADA departmental-mandate)
Institution's/Department's OA Repository
[growth data] http://dspace.ucalgary.ca/
Institution's/Department's OA Self-Archiving Policy
University of Oregon Library Faculty (US departmental-mandate)
Institution's/Department's Institutional Repository
[growth data] https://scholarsbank.uoregon.edu/
Institution's/Department's OA Self-Archiving Policy
Peter Suber, the de facto leader of the Open Access movement has been appointed a Fellow of the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University.
A brilliant choice, and eminently well-deserved. Peter -- whose historic contributions to the growth of OA have been spectacularly successful -- will continue his invaluable OA work, but this Fellowship will also make it possible for him to begin writing the books on OA and related matters that are welling up in him, and that the world scholarly and scientific research community (as well as the historians of knowledge) are eagerly waiting to read, digest and learn from for years to come.
It is so gratifying to see true merit being rewarded occasionally, as it ought to be (although my guess is that this is just the beginning of the honors to be accorded to this selfless and sapient transformer of Gutenberg scholarship into PostGutenberg scholarship).
Two more Green OA Self-Archiving Mandates from the Russian Academy of Sciences (KAM and VSSC), as reported in eifl.net by Iryna Kuchma. (The other two eifl mandates -- CEMI and TSTU (Ukraine) -- had already been announced.)
Depending on how you count and clock it, the Ukraine's Ternopil State Ivan Puluj Technical University (ELARTU) has adopted the planet's 73rd Green Open Access Self-Archiving Mandate and Belgium's Académie 'Louvain' (consisting of the Facultés universitaires catholiques de Mons, Facultés Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix à Namur, Facultés universitaires Saint-Louis, and the Université catholique de Louvain) has adopted the planet's 74th Green Open Access Self-Archiving Mandate.
A second university mandate (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid) plus a second funder mandate (Madrid Autonomous Community) from Spain, raising the worldwide total of Green OA self-archiving mandates to 72!
Here is the Quicktime Movie of:
"On the affinities and disaffinities among free software, peer-to-peer access, and open access to peer-reviewed research."a talk given by Stevan Harnad on March 26 at: Oekonux and P2P Foundation Conference. Manchester, UK, 27-29 March 2009.
MIT has adopted the world's 70th Green OA Self-Archiving Mandate, but the first university-wide one based on a university-wide faculty vote. Kudos to MIT!
The planet's first Green OA Mandate by a Library Faculty has been adopted at Oregon State University. Librarians have been at the vanguard of the Open Access movement, often trying heroically, but in vain, to convince other faculty university-wide to deposit, as well as to convince the university to mandate deposit. Here is something they can do on their own, to provide an example and show the way: mandate deposit within their own department or faculty. This is also an instance if Arthur's Sale's suggestion that "patchwork mandates" be adopted at the laboratory, department or faculty level, rather than waiting for university-wide mandates). OSU's is also the optimal ID/OA (DDR) mandate.
Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government has adopted Harvard's 3rd Green OA Mandate and the planet's 69th. Congratulations to Stuart Shieber, Faculty Director of the OSC and the architect of this remarkable (and seemingly unending) series of Green OA mandates from Harvard. There is now no better model for emulation worldwide
Excellent news from Harvard! It looks as if the Harvard Green OA Mandate has added an ID/OA Immediate Deposit Clause with no opt-out. This would make Harvard's mandate the optimal Green OA Mandate model, now ready for all universities worldwide to emulate: rights-retention (with optional opt-out) plus Immediate-Deposit (without opt-out).
(Harvard Medical School has also proposed a Green OA mandate -- with welcome provisions for exporting the Harvard deposit to PubMed Central to comply with the NIH Mandate, instead of depositing in PubMed Central directly.)
See: Critique of Conyers Bill HR 801 The real motivation for this mischievous Bill is not so much to overturn NIH's Green OA Mandate but jurisdictional rivalry among congressional committees. The usual spurious anti-OA arguments of publishers are re-floated, despite the countless times they have been rebutted and discredited: "The government should not mandate OA self-archiving for government-funded research because it could cause catastrophic cancellations, making institutional journal subscriptions unsustainable and thereby destroying peer review."
The reply is that peer review can and will be paid for directly out of those self-same institutional subscription cancellation savings, through a transition to the Gold OA cost-recovery model, if and when Green OA ever does cause these hypothetical catastrophic cancellations. Until then and either way, full speed ahead with mandated OA, because of its actual (i.e., non-hypothetical) benefits to research, researchers, their institution and funders, the R & D industry, students. teachers, the developing world, and, above all, the tax-paying public that funds the research and for whose benefit the research is being conducted. Publishing is a service to research; not vice versa. The Conyers Bill proposes to continue to let the publishing tail wag the research dog.
Switzerland's University of St. Gallen has adopted a Green OA Self-Archiving Mandate. This is Switzerland's 4th Green OA Mandate (3 university mandates, one funder mandate), making 66 so far worldwide.
NIH's Acting Director, Raynard Kington, writes that "NIH [is] open to closer collaboration with institutional [repositories]... [D]irect feeds from [institutional repositories (IRs) are] worthwhile [but] raise important technical and logistical challenges..."
All technical and logistical challenges to designating Institutional Repositories (IRs) as NIH's preferred locus of direct deposit (followed by "direct feed" to PubMed Central (PMC)) can be successfully met: The SWORD transfer protocol has already solved the problem of automatically exporting IR deposits to other reposiitories.
The benefits of NIH/institutional collaboration on direct feeds will be enormous, and will far exceed the current reach of the NIH mandate.
Evans & Reimer (2009) show that a large portion of the increased citations generated by making articles Open Access (OA) come from Developing-World authors citing OA articles more.
A within-US comparison would probably show much the same: making articles OA should increase citations from authors at the Have-Not universities (with the smaller journal subscription budgets) more than from Harvard authors. Articles by Developing World (and US Have-Not) authors should also be cited more if they are made OA, but the main beneficiaries of OA will be the best articles, wherever they are published.
This raises the question of how many citations – and how much corresponding research uptake, usage and progress – are lost when publishers embargo their authors for 6-12 months from making their articles OA. (It is important to note that E & R's results are not based on immediate OA but on free access after an embargo of up to a year or much more.) See critiques 1 and 2.
As the Conyers Bill in the US seeks to undo the good done by the NIH Public Access Policy, here is some sunnier news from Spain. It is no exaggeration that open access to health research advances research progress and saves lives, whereas the Conyers Bill seeks to protect publisher access to profits at public expense. Iberia has different priorities. Many thanks to Eloy Rodrigues and Alicia Lopez Medina for posting this information about Spain's Draft Open Access Law on the American Scientist Open Access Forum
There just might be some hope that UK's Research Funding Councils -- all seven of which now mandate Green OA self-archiving, as recommended by the UK Parliamentary Select Committee on Science and Technology in 2004 -- could go on and take the initiative to stipulate that each fundee's Institutional Repository (IR) is to be the default locus-of-deposit (with DEPOT as the interim back-up).
If adopted by the UK Funding Councils, this small change in implementational detail has a good chance of motivating all UK universities and research institutions to adopt Green OA self-archiving mandates too, for the rest of their research output. This UK model will then undoubtedly propagate globally, to bring the planet universal OA at long last!
The US publisher lobby is trying to undo one of the most positive things Congress has done for science: the NIH Public Access Act, which requires NIH-funded research to be made freely accessible to the public that funded it. Tendentiously misnamed "Fair Copyright in Research Works Act", the Conyers Bill proposes to "protect" publicly funded research in exactly the same way it protects proprietary Disney cartoons or How-To bestsellers, sold for author royalty income.
It is time for OA advocates and the general public (US and worldwide, because US OA policy has vast global implications) to make their voices heard in favor of the NIH Public Access Policy and against the Conyers Bill's Caricature of Copyright. Please consult the Alliance for Taxpayer Access on how you can help and also express your support for mandating more OA rather than less, to President Obama.
Click here to see the timely and incisive analysis of what is at stake in the question of locus of deposit (institutional vs. central) for open access self-archiving mandates. It was written (and translated into English) by Prof. Bernard Rentier, Rector of the University of Liège and founder of EurOpenScholar. It is re-posted here from Prof. Rentier's blog.
For more background on the important current issues underlying the question of institutional vs. central deposit mandates by universities and research funders, click here.
Liège is one of the c. 30 institutions (plus 30 funders) that have already adopted a Green OA self-archiving mandate
The Basement Interviews by Richard Poynder
"Common Knowledge, Common Good: Architects and Advocates of the Free Knowledge Movement"
UK's 21st Green OA Mandate, Planet's 62nd
(Via Peter Suber's OA News)
Engineering & Physical Sciences Research Council (ESPRC) (UK funder-mandate)
Institution's/Department's OA Eprint Archives
Institution's/Department's OA Self-Archiving Policy
The independent study commissioned by Research Councils UK was completed in late 2008. The findings from the study are now being taken forward by the Cross-Council Research Outputs Group and will be used to inform future policy on open access. EPSRC Council agreed at its December meeting to mandate open access publication, but that academics should be able to choose whether they use the green option (ie, self-archiving in an on-line repository) or gold option (ie, pay-to-publish in an open access journal). Further details will be published in spring 2009.
Dr. Michael Norris, of the Department of Information Science (DIS) at Loughborough University, has been named as a Highly Commended Award winner of the 2008 Emerald/EFMD Outstanding Doctoral Research Award in the Information Science category for his doctoral thesis ‘The citation advantage of open access articles’.
Published version: Norris, M, Oppenheim C, Rowland F. (2008) The citation advantage of open-access articles. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59(12) 1963-72.
(One does wonder, however, why -- although Loughborough University's Institutional Repository has not yet adopted a self-archiving mandate -- neither this thesis nor this paper numbers among the 47 items deposited by (or for) any of its co-authors (none of them more recent than 2007)...)
An invaluable friend to Open Access, University of Southampton's Professor Wendy Hall, as Head of the School of Electronics and Computer Science from 2002 to 2007, not only presided over the adoption and implementation of the world's first Green OA Self-Archiving Mandate, but she quietly went on to help get Green (ID/OA) Mandates adopted at the European level, as a founding member of the Scientific Council of the European Research Council as well as President of the British Computer Society (BCS) and member of the Prime Minister’s Council for Science and Technology. It is no small thanks to Wendy's support that the UK in particular and Europe in general are leading the world in its inexorable progress toward the optimal and inevitable outcome for scientific and scholarly research, at long last. And this is but one part of what Wendy has done for computer science, and science in general. Let us all celebrate her latest honour.
(Dame Wendy was, among other things, the inventor of Microcosm, a harbinger of the Semantic Web, whose inventor -- an obscure courtly figure by the name of Sir Tim Berners-Lee -- has since likewise become one of Wendy's Southampton departmental colleagues.)
Institution's OA Eprint Archives
Institution's OA Self-Archiving Mandate
Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services (Nasjonalt kunnskapssenter for helsetjenesten, NoKC) adopted an Institutional Policy for Open Access to Scientific Publications, November 25, 2008.
All scientific publications by NoKC research staff "must" be deposited at the time of acceptance in Helsebiblioteket's Research Archive (HeRA), the new institutional repository launched by the NoKC health library (Helsebiblioteket). For each deposit, HeRA will release as much as it can as soon as it can. For example, HeRA will respect publisher embargoes, but will release OA metadata during the period when the full-text may be embargoed.
Scotland's Napier University has adopted the UK's 20th Green OA Self-Archiving Mandate (and the world's 59th)
Institution's/Department's OA Eprint Archives
Institution's/Department's OA Self-Archiving Policy
"All research output is to be self-deposited, so that the repository forms the official record of the University’s research publications; all publication lists required for administration or promotion will be generated from this source...
"The comprehensive, online, University repository will be used in future to respond to bibliometric research assessments with reduced input and effort from staff...
"Journal articles or conference papers may be submitted as accepted drafts not yet refereed (preprints) but it is mandatory that the refereed, final, submitted, accepted, version (postprint) is later entered into the repository as the last university owned version of the document...
"Staff are not required to deposit the full text of books or research monographs, but are required to supply references along with abstracts and metadata to identify the works...
"Uploading of items in the Repository@Napier is the responsibility of authors and researchers, as advised and supported by Learning Information Services (LIS)....
"It is University policy that each depositor should be required to make the minimum effort in order to provide open online access to their research output, so the “Repository@Napier” is designed to enable uploading of documents and entry of minimal extra data...
"Initially, the repository manager or a designated assistant will upload files sent to a designated email address, but depositors will be encouraged to make their own deposits and information on the process will be made available by LIS....
13/11/2008/ Autism Speaks (US* funder-mandate)
Institution's/Department's OA Eprint Archives
Institution's/Department's OA Self-Archiving Policy
All researchers who receive an Autism Speaks grant will be required to deposit any resulting peer-reviewed research papers in the PubMed Central online archive, which will make the articles available to the public within 12 months of journal publication.
Les Carr has posted a call:
Looking for Evidence of Researcher Engagement with Repositories
."a collection of success stories -- anecdotes of how repositories have been able to improve the lot of researchers -- for appealing to institutional repository nay-sayers and open access agnostics"
and the redoubtable Alma Swan has, as always, responded with data, posting:
Reasons researchers really rate repositories
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) is using open source software, including ECS's EPrints, in its bid to become one of the most high-tech political parties in the world.
ETH Zürich (SWITZERLAND* institutional-mandate)
Institution's/Department's OA Eprint Archives
Hong Kong University (CHINA* proposed-multi-institutional-mandate)
Institution's/Department's OA Eprint Archives
10/10/2008/ The Brisbane Declaration on Open Access at last puts some real practical policy content and substance into the Budapest/Bethesda/Berlin series, along the lines of the UK Select Committee Recommendation and Berlin 3. If this is implemented planet-wide, we have universal Open Access within a year.
University of Glasgow (UK* funder-mandate)
Institution's/Department's OA Eprint Archives
Institution's/Department's OA Self-Archiving Policy
National Cancer Institute of Canada (CANADA* funder-mandate)
Institution's/Department's OA Eprint Archives
Institution's/Department's OA Self-Archiving Policy
19/09/2008 Those who said Green OA Self-Archiving could not be mandated in Germany please take notice. Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft has been the first to do the "impossible" (from ROARMAP, via Informationsplattform Open Access and Peter Suber's Open Access News): Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft (GERMANY* institutional-mandate)
Institution's/Department's OA Eprint Archives
Institution's/Department's OA Self-Archiving Policy
Open Access and Research Conference 2008
STAMFORD PLAZA HOTEL, BRISBANE, QUEENSLAND 24-25 SEPTEMBER
"The way we create and disseminate knowledge has undergone profound change over the last ten years...
"...we have seen a worldwide move towards establishing frameworks in which we can optimise access to and reuse of research especially that which is publicly funded...
"This has been supported by the development of open access repositories, new publishing tools and models and more strategic management of copyright at the individual and institutional level.
"QUT along with many other institutions throughout the world has been a pioneer in putting in place the management practices and necessary infrastructure to promote access and innovation.
"We are proud to announce what we believe will be a truly landmark conference that will draw on experts from Australia and around the world speak on a range of topics such as evolving publishing models, repository management, e-Research, policy development, and legal and technical issues."
Research Evaluation, Metrics and Open Access in the Humanities
Trinity College Dublin
18-20 September 2008
-- Aimed at Arts and Humanities researchers, Deans of Research, Librarians, research group leaders and policy makers within the Coimbra-Group member universities and the Irish University sector...
-- To compare established and innovative methods and models of research evaluation and assess their appropriateness for the Arts and Humanities sector...
-- To assess the increasing impact of bibliometrical approaches and Open Access policies on the Arts and Humanities sector...
28/08/2008/ Macquarie University(HEA) has adopted the planet's 53rd Green OA Self-Archiving mandate Australia's 7th; the 26th institutional/departmenal mandate overall). Official text to be posted soon.
11/08/2008/ Ireland's Higher Education Authority (HEA) has adopted the planet's 52nd Green OA Self-Archiving mandate (Ireland's 2nd mandate; the 27th funder mandate overall) and it chose the optimal mandate model: EURAB's.
Comhghairdeas, Eire! The mandate's text is well worth reading (and emulating) in detail.
22/08/2008/ The European Commission has now mandated Green OA self-archiving for 20% of its 7th Framework Funding. This is the 51st Green OA Mandate worldwide (and the 26th funder mandate: The European Research Council (ERC), another European research funder, had earlier likewise mandated Green OA.)
From ROARMAP: Institution's/Department's OA Self-Archiving Policy
The pilot covers approximately 20% of the FP7 budget and will apply to specific areas of research under the 7th Research Framework Programme (FP7): Health, Energy, Environment, Information and Communication Technologies (Cognitive Systems, Interaction, Robotics), Research Infrastructures (e-Infrastructures), Socio-economic Sciences and Humanities, Science in Society.
New grant agreements in the areas covered by the pilot will contain a clause requiring grant recipients to deposit peer reviewed research articles or final manuscripts resulting from their FP7 projects into their institutional or if unavailable a subject-based repository... within six or twelve months after publication, depending on the research area.
12/08/2008/ Ethics In Science And Environmental Politics (ESEP)
ESEP Theme Section: The Use And Misuse Of Bibliometric Indices In Evaluating Scholarly Performance + accompanying Discussion Forum
Editors: Howard I. Browman, Konstantinos I. Stergiou
"Quantifying the relative performance of individual scholars, groups of scholars, departments, institutions, provinces/states/regions and countries has become an integral part of decision-making over research policy, funding allocations, awarding of grants, faculty hirings, and claims for promotion and tenure. Bibliometric indices...are heavily relied upon in such assessments... often used as a replacement for the informed judgement of peers... are misunderstood... often misinterpreted and misused. The articles in this ESEP Theme Section present a range of... approaches, tools and metrics [toward] a more balanced role for these instruments."
30/07/2008/ The Humanities and Social Sciences branch of France's Agence Nationale de la recherche has just announced its Green OA self-archiving mandate -- France's first funder mandate (France' second mandate overall, and the world's 50th). See ROARMAP
17/7/2008/ With today's Green OA Self-Archiving Mandate announcement from Canada's National Research Council, that makes 49 mandates adopted and 12 more proposed. See ROARMAP (Registry of Open Access Repository Material Archiving Policies).
Let us hope that NRC will sensibly require that authors deposit directly in their own Institutional Repositories, from which NRC's planned central repository, NPArC, can then harvest the deposit, rather than needlessly requiring -- as NIH currently does -- direct institution-external deposit. The optimal mandate is of course ID/OA (immediate deposit/optional access) rather than delayed or optional deposit.
01/07/2008 From the OAK Law Project: by Kylie Pappalardo (with the assistance of Professor Brian Fitzgerald, Professor Anne Fitzgerald, Scott Kiel-Chisholm, Jenny Georgiades and Anthony Austin):
Understanding Open Access in the Academic Environment: A Guide for Authors aims to provide practical guidance for academic authors interested in making their work more openly accessible to readers and other researchers. The guide provides authors with an overview of the concept of and rationale for open access to research outputs and how they may be involved in its implementation and with what effect. In doing so it considers the central role of copyright law and publishing agreements in structuring an open access framework as well as the increasing involvement of funders and academic institutions. The guide also explains different methods available to authors for making their outputs openly accessible, such as publishing in an open access journal or depositing work into an open access repository. Importantly, the guide addresses how open access goals can affect an author’s relationship with their commercial publisher and provides guidance on how to negotiate a proper allocation of copyright interests between an author and publisher. A Copyright Toolkit is provided to further assist authors in managing their copyright.
26/06/2008 John Willinsky has just announced at ELPUB 2008:
Stanford School of Education Mandates Green OA Self-Archiving
18/06/2008 The Association of American University Presses (AAUP) annual meeting in Montreal 26-28 June will have a Plenary Session on Open Access: From the Budapest Open to Harvard's Addendum Moderated by Sandy Thatcher (Director, Penn State University Press) with presentations by Stevan Harnad (UQAM & Southampton) and Stanley Katz (Princeton).
18/06/2008 ELPUB 2008, with the theme of Open Scholarship, meets in Toronto, Canada, June 25-27 2008.
Les Carr (U. Southampton) will conduct a workshop on "Repositories that Support Research Management"
John Willinsky (UBC & Stanford) will deliver the opening keynote:The Quality of Open Scholarship: What Follows from Open?
Stevan Harnad (UQAM & Southampton) will deliver the closing keynote: Filling OA Space At Long Last: Integrating University and Funder Mandates and Metrics.
07/05/2008 Harvard Law School has unanimously adopted a Green OA Self-Archiving Mandate -- Harvard's 2nd, the US's 4th, and the world's 44th (with 7 more proposed mandates under consideration, including the EUA council's unanimous recommendation to its 791 member universities in 46 countries).
29/04/2008 The definition of Open Access (OA) has been updated to reflect OA developments and evolving usage. Access barriers take two forms: price-barriers and permission-barriers. Making documents price-free (online) is a necessary, but not a sufficient condition for making them permission-free. Henceforth being accessible online price-free will be called "Weak OA" and being accessible price- and permission-free will be called "Strong OA." Green and Gold remain the two means of providing OA (OA self-archiving and OA publishing, respectively), but so far most Green OA as well as Gold OA are only Weak OA. Once Green OA mandates from institutions and funders have generated universal Weak OA, Strong OA will not be far behind.
29/04/2008 The SPARC / SCIENCE COMMONS WHITE PAPER on "what faculty authors can do to ensure open access to their work through their institution" proposes the key modification that will upgrade the Harvard self-archiving mandate to the optimal alternative -- a universal, no-opt-out, Deposit Mandate, plus a licensing clause with an opt-out option -- making the mandate suitable for adoption by all universities and funders worldwide. The crucial difference is that the deposit clause must be no-opt-out -- a true mandate. (Let's hope Harvard too will consider making the tiny change that would upgrade its mandate to this optimal alternative.) This upgraded mandate, more powerful even than what the White Paper notes, should now also make it more evident why it is so important to integrate university and funder mandates, both converging deposit on (and then harvesting from) the repositories of the institutions that are the providers of all the research (attention NIH!).
Developers from ECS, Southampton, and Oxford University won a $5000 challenge competition which took place at the OR08 Open Repositories international conference.
The University of Southampton announced a University-wide Open Access mandate at the Open Repositories (OR08) conference last week (4 April).
09/04/2008 Scotland's first University-Wide Green OA self-archiving mandate has been adopted by University of Stirling.
This is actually Scotland's second Green OA self-archiving mandate: The first was a funder mandate: Scottish Executive Health Department. It is also the 17th UK Green OA mandate (13 funder mandates, 2 institutional mandates, 2 departmental mandates: Southampton ECS (2 Jan 2003), Brunel ICSM (6 Dec 2006), U Southampton (squeeking in 4 Apr 2008), and now U Stirling) (9 April 2008).
There are now 41 mandates in all, worldwide.(The UK continues to lead the world in both funder and institutional mandates, but watch out for the waking giant! The 791 universities in 46 countries in the European University Association (EUA), whose Council has unanimously recommended that its individual universities mandate Green OA self-archiving.)
01/04/2008/ NIH is calling for a round of public recommendations on the best way to implement and monitor compliance with its OA Self-Archiving mandate. It is important to make the NIH mandate efficient and successful for NIH and its fundees and to ensure that it reinforces and converges with the growing number of complementary university self-archiving mandates (such as Harvard's): (1) NIH's preferred locus of direct deposit for the postprint should be the fundee's Institutional Repository (IR) (from which it can then be downloaded to NIH) and that (2) the fulfillment conditions on the NIH grant should stipulate that the fundee institution monitors that the deposit has been made. Please make your own recommendations here
Powerful new ways in which universities are self-archiving their research output are being showcased at the Open Repositories 2008 (OR08) conference, hosted by ECS.
06/03/2008 There is a simple way to integrate research funder OA mandates (such as NIH's) and university OA mandates (such as Harvard's) to make them synergistic. Both universities and funders should mandate the deposit of all peer-reviewed final drafts into each author's own university Institutional Repository immediately upon acceptance for publication. Access to that deposit may be set immediately as Open Access if copyright conditions allow; otherwise Closed Access, pending copyright negotiations or embargoes. As a result, (1) there will be a common deposit locus for all research output worldwide; (2) university mandates will reinforce and monitor compliance with funder mandates; (3) funder mandates will reinforce university mandates; (4) legal details concerning OA-setting will be applied independently of deposit itself, according to the conditions of each mandate; (5) opt-outs will apply only to copyright negotiations, not to deposit itself, nor its timing; and (6) central OA repositories (like PubMed Central) may harvest the postprints from the authors' IRs under the agreed conditions at the agreed time.
12/2/2008/ Harvard University's Faculty of Arts and Sciences on Tuesday February 12 adopted the world's 38th Green Open Access Self-Archiving Mandate -- the 16th of the institutional or departmental mandates.
An OA mandate from Harvard is especially significant, timely and welcome for the worldwide Open Access movement, as Harvard will of course be widely emulated, and many other universities are now proposing to adopt OA mandates.
However, the current wording of the Harvard mandate has one crucial (but easily corrected) flaw. It mandates copyright retention (and must consequently allow opt-out). The solution is to separate the deposit requirement (with no opt-out allowed) from the copyright retention requirement (with opt-out allowed).
27/01/2008 The Council of the European University Association unanimously adopted the recommendation of the EUA Working Group on Open Access that all European Universities should create institutional repositories and should mandate that all research publications must be deposited in them immediately upon publication (and made Open Access as soon as possible thereafter) as already mandated by RCUK, ERC, and NIH, and as recommended by EURAB, and that this self-archiving mandate should also be extended to all research results arising from EU research programme/project funding.
27/01/2008 Highlights from the 1st DRIVER Summit Report:
"The conditions to populate repositories with content and to implement a coherent European and global digital repository based eInfrastructure are more favourable than ever before. The Council's Conclusions on Scientific Information, the European Research Council Open Access mandate and the current preparation of an Open Access mandate for all EC funded research publications can draw from the existing infrastructure efforts which must be accelerated in the coming months... The EC-funded DRIVER II project is leading the way as the largest initiative of its kind in helping to enhance repository development worldwide.
As a historic matter: The European Research Council has finalised its Green OA Self-Archiving Mandate (and it did so 19 days before the NIH mandate!):
"The ERC requires that all peer-reviewed publications from ERC-funded research projects be deposited on publication into an appropriate research repository where available, such as PubMed Central, ArXiv or an institutional repository, and subsequently made Open Access within 6 months of publication."
Bravo to both the US and Europe. Now it is time for the other US and EC funding agencies -- and, even more importantly, all the US and European universities -- to follow suit with Green OA Self-Archiving Mandates of their own.
01/01/2008 Universities UK Research Information and Management Workshop
Professor Bernard Rentier, Rector, University of Liege: EurOpenScholar
Dr Alma Swan, Director, Key Perspectives Ltd: The whole picture: the overall scholarly information landscape
Professor Stevan Harnad, University of Southampton: Mandates and Metrics: How Open Repositories Enable Universities to Manage, Measure and Maximise their Research Assets
Professor David Eastwood, Chief Executive, HEFCE: Optimising research management and assessment processes; the role of funders
Dr. Michael Jubb, Director, Research Information Network: Overview: outline of the evolution of scholarly information, what advantages new changes will bring and economic impact for the UK [addendum: US NIH Mandate ]
26/12/2007 The US NIH Green OA Mandate was made law on December 26 2007
Worldwide, that now makes 21 funder-mandates, 11 institutional mandates, and 3 departmental mandates, plus 5 proposed funder mandates, 1 proposed institutional mandate, and 2 proposed multi-institutional mandates -- a total of 35 mandates already adopted and 8 more proposed so far. See ROARMAP.
2008 will now be the year of institutional Green OA self-archiving mandates. Research funder mandates cover funded research output in the funder's field. Institutional mandates cover all of research output, across all fields and nations.
The optimal way for funder and institutional mandates to complement one another and to ensure that mandates swiftly and systematically scale up to encompass all of research output worldwide is for both kinds of mandates to require deposit directly in the researcher's own Institutional Repository. Central Repositories, indexers, and search engines can then harvest from the distributed network of OAI-interoperable Institutional Repositories.
24/11/2007/ Labour have won in Australia.
Labor will abolish the Howard Government’s flawed Research Quality Framework, and replace it with a new, streamlined, transparent, internationally verifiable system of research quality assessment, based on quality measures appropriate to each discipline. These measures will be developed in close consultation with the research community.
Arthur Sale: "It should now be crystal clear to every university in Australia that citations and other measures will be key in the future. It should be equally clear that they should do everything possible to increase their performance on these measures. Any university that fails to immediately implement an ID/OA mandate (Immediate Deposit, Open Access when possible) in its institutional repository is simply deciding to opt out of research competition."
23/11/2007/ Three things need to be remedied in the UK's proposed HEFCE/RAE Research Evaluation Framework: (1) Make sure to use a full, rich battery of candidate metrics -- especially online metrics -- in all disciplines. (2) Make sure to cross-validate them against the panel rankings in the last parallel panel/metric RAE in 2008. (3) Make sure all university Institutional Repositories (IRs) systematically archive all their research output assets (especially publications) so they can be counted and assessed (as well as accessed!), along with their IR metrics (downloads, links, growth/decay rates, harvested citation counts, etc.).
24/10/2007 On Wednesday, October 17, one day before EurOpenScholar was launched by the Rector of the University of Liège, the Rector of the University of Brasilia (UnB) launched a Brazilian Open Access Task Force at a meeting hosting the rectors of six major Brazilian universities and the head of IBICT (Brazilian Institute for Information on Science and Technology). By way of a practical follow-up to the many manifestos and declarations already signed by Brazil's research institutions, the Task Force will inform the Brazilian university community about how researchers can provide open access by establishing institutional repositories and mandate policies in Brazil's universities and research institutions. OASIS.Br will also provide a central portal to Brazilian repositories and Open Access e-journals.
24/10/2007 The US Senate has now passed the NIH Green OA Mandate by a big majority: There is no need for US Universities to keep waiting now (to see whether it is implemented, or vetoed by President Bush). Universities can already go ahead, knowing they have the blessing of both Houses of Congress, and adopt Green OA Mandates for their own institutional research output, deposited in their own Institutional Repositories -- and not just for the NIH-funded biomedical research, but for all their research output (along the lines of the US Federal Research Public Access Act [FRPAA], which is also soon to be revived). And so can research funders (including the NIH!). The handwriting is on the wall, and it is Green. And meanwhile, daily, weekly, monthly research access and impact are still being lost, needlessly, and cumulatively, at the expense of research productivity and progress for us all.
18/10/2007 You are invited to use this video to promote OA mandates and metrics at your institution: download video
18/10/2007 The European University Rectors' Conference on Open Access, convened by Bernard Rentier, Rector of the University of Liège has launched EurOpenScholar to promote OA to European researchers as well as to their universities, research funders and policy-makers, the R&D industry, the media and the general public.
26/10/2007 Richard Poynder, the de facto chonicler of the Open Access Movement (and beyond), has at long last done one of his characteristically probing and always insightful interviews with "the de factor leader of the open access (OA) movement," Peter Suber. Read, learn, and admire.
12/10/2007 Singh, N.K. (2007) The self-archiving principle: a momentous trek. Postgraduate Medical Journal. 83: 564-567
Abstract: In the existing scholarly publishing empire, authors give away their valued research work to various commercial journals, thereby restricting free accessibility to the published work. Triggered by the gargantuan promise of the internet, the self-archiving principle is a new and revolutionary concept which potentially lets all research work become freely available online. It involves deposition of research documents at a publicly accessible website, and its proponents see the initiative as a means to set entire author works free of all access and impact barriers. This review briefly discusses the allied concepts, the course and implications of the initiative.
11/4/2007/ From Peter Suber's Open Access News: "How many publishers have publicly disavowed PRISM or distanced themselves from it? Nine and counting (with links to their public statements): Cambridge University Press, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Columbia University Press, MIT Press, Nature Publishing Group, Oxford University Press, Pennsylvania State University Press, Rockefeller University Press, University of Chicago Press. How many publishers have been identified on the PRISM web site as members of the PRISM 'coalition'? Zero."
Hiring the high-profile PR 'pitbull' Eric Dezenhall seems to be turning into something of a high-priced, high-profile PR disaster for the publishers' anti-OA lobby
01/10/2007 Adopted in January 2003, the self-archiving mandate of the U. Southampton ECS Department was the world's first and has since served as a model for a growing number of Green OA self-archiving mandates worldwide. (32 institutional/departmental and research-funder mandates have been adopted, and 8 more proposed, as of October 2007.) In 2004-5, author surveys by Alma Swan had predicted that the willing compliance rate for self-archiving mandates would be over 80%. In 2005-6, Arthur Sale then estimated from actual Australian repository deposit data that mandates would reach Swan's predicted compliance rate in about two years.
Now Southampton's Les Carr has confirmed Swan's survey predictions and Sale's Australian extrapolations: ECS's deposit rate in 2006 is over 80% for an ISI Web of Knowledge sample and nearly 100% for an ACM Digital Library sample.This should encourage other universities to adopt self-archiving mandates and help persuade US legislators to upgrade the failed NIH policy to a mandate in the next US Senate Appropriations Bill.
19/09/2007 The Irish Research Council for Science, Engineering & Technology's (IRCSET's) proposed Green Open Access self-Archiving Mandate is not only timely and welcome, but the optimal funder mandate. IRCSET proposes mandating immediate deposit, without exception, in an OA Repository (Institutional or Central) and it puts a maximum cap of 6 months on the length of the allowable access embargo, after which access to the deposit must be made Open Access rather than Closed Access.
19/09/2007 Thomas, Chuck & McDonald, Robert H. (2007) Measuring and Comparing Participation Patterns in Digital Repositories: Repositories by the Numbers, Part 1. D-lib Magazine 13 (9/10)
Excerpt: "As for mandatory-deposit repositories, the limited available data indicate authors represented in such repositories tend to contribute more of their intellectual output. Sale (2006) predicted institutions establishing deposit mandates were likely to see such results within three years of implementing these policies. Harnad (2006) cited surveys showing 95% of scholars comply if their university mandates depositing in an institutional repository. This study's findings only reinforce such predictions and arguments favoring institutional mandates. As the data in this article show, a mandate is arguably the "tipping point" described by Gladwell (2000) that can make depositing behavior among scholars not just widespread, but also more of an ingrained and complete behavior."
Drenth, JPH (2003) More reprint requests, more citations? Scientometrics 56: 283-286. "Reprint requests are commonly used to obtain a copy of an article. [A] 10-year-sample... [found] an excellent correlation between the number of requests and citations to article... Articles that received most reprint requests are cited more often."
Swales, J. (1988), Language and scientific communication. The case of the reprint request. Scientometrics 13: 93–101. "This paper reports on a study of Reprint Requests (RRs). It is estimated that tens of millions of RRs are mailed each year, most being triggered by Current Contents..."
Garfield, E. (1999) From Photostats to Home Pages on the World Wide Web: A Tutorial on How to Create Your Electronic Archive. The Scientist 13(4):14. "It is the utopian expectation of those who live in cyberspace that eventually most researchers will create Web sites containing the full text of all their papers... The social, economic, and scholarly impact of this development has major consequences for the future...
Garfield, E. (1965) Is the 'free reprint system' free and/or obsolete? Essays of an Information Scientist 1:10-11.
Garfield, E. (1972) Reprint Exchange. 1. The multimillion dollar problem ordinaire, Essays of an Information Scientist 1:359-60.
07/09/2007 The UK's Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) is now the 6th of the 7 UK Research Councils to adopt a Green Open Access Self-Archiving Mandate . -- But there is an unnecessary and easily-corrected flaw in this mandate:
AHRC (and many of the other funder mandates) have allowed an embargo period before the article is made OA, if the publisher wishes. That is fine. But it is a huge mistake to allow the time at which the article must be deposited to be dictated by the publisher's embargo.
The deposit should be required immediately upon acceptance for publication, without exception. If there is no publisher embargo, that deposit is also immediately made Open Access at that same time. Otherwise it is made Closed Access for the duration of the embargo period. The point of requiring immediate deposit either way is to close a profound loophole that could otherwise delay both deposit and OA indefinitely, turning the mandate into a mockery from which any researcher can opt out at the behest of his publisher.
See: Optimizing OA Self-Archiving Mandates: What? Where? When? Why? How? and The Immediate-Deposit/Optional Access (ID/OA) Mandate: Rationale and Model
05/09/2007 The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) has just announced the official adoption of the Green Open Access Self-Archiving Mandate it had proposed last year. This is the 31st Green OA Mandate adopted worldwide, but the 1st in North America. In all, 14 departmental and institutional self-archiving mandates plus 17 funder mandates have so far been adopted worldwide. In addition, 2 large multi-institutional mandates (Brazil and Europe) are in the proposal stage, as are 4 proposed funder mandates (two of them in the US and very big).
The UK is still substantially in the lead for OA mandates adopted, but if the pending US and European mandate proposals are adopted, OA will have prevailed unstoppably worldwide. The next big growth area will be the sleeping giant of university Green OA mandates, fueled by both the OA movement and the Institutional Repository movement. The UK universities and the European ones are moving in concerted directions here.
04/09/2007 (1) Peer review just means the assessment of research by qualified experts.
(2) Peer review, like all human judgment, is fallible, and susceptible to error and abuse.
(3) Funding and publishing without any assessment is not a solution:
(3a) Everything cannot be funded and even funded projects first need some expert advice in their design.
(3b) Everything does get published, eventually, but there is a hierarchy of journal peer-review quality standards, serving as an essential guide for users, to guide them in what they can take the risk of trying to read, use and build upon.
(4) So far, nothing as good as or better than peer review (i.e., qualified experts vetting the work of their fellow-experts) has been found, tested and demonstrated.
(5) Peer review's efficiency can be improved in the online era.
(6) Metrics are not a substitute for peer review, they are a supplement to it.
CTWatch Quarterly Volume 3 Number 3 August 2007
Incentivizing the Open Access Research Web:
Publication-Archiving, Data-Archiving and Scientometrics
Tim Brody, U. Southampton; Les Carr, U Southampton; Yves Gingras, UQAM; Chawki Hajjem, UQAM; Stevan Harnad, U Southampton & UQAM; Alma Swan, U Southampton & Key Perspectives
03/08/07/ The only thing standing between the research community and 100% Open Access (OA) is:
K E Y S T R O K E S
Universities and Research Funders need to mandate those keystrokes with the
Immediate-Deposit/Optional-Access (ID/OA) Mandate:
Immediate Deposit + Immediate Open Access (62%)
OR (optionally, in case of a publisher embargo)
Immediate Deposit + Closed Access + “Fair Use Button” (38%)
Click here for a demonstration of how the EPrints Fair Use Button can provide almost-immediate, almost-OA even during a publisher embargo (or try it yourself at demoprints).
17/07/07 From Peter Suber's Open Access News:
The US House of Representatives voted Tuesday, July 17, 2007, on the appropriations bill establishing an OA mandate at the NIH.
Sec. 217: The Director of the National Institutes of Health shall require that all investigators funded by the NIH submit or have submitted for them to the National Library of Medicine’s PubMed Central an electronic version of their final, peer-reviewed manuscripts upon acceptance for publication to be made publicly available no later than 12 months after the official date of publication.
The section creating the OA mandate (ß217) was read. The amendment window opened briefly and then closed. No amendments were offered.
This victory reflects the groundswell of public support for OA at the NIH. House members definitely heard the message.
The House vote is in a few days, and then the Senate vote, which is still unscheduled. Then a Presidential signature.
ECS Professor Stevan Harnad has been profiled in a long interview by Richard Poynder, covering his influence on the Open Access movement, and the lifelong beliefs which have made him such a strong advocate on its behalf.
A new proposal to use the UK’s Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) to create and validate powerful new Open Access metrics of research impact will be presented this month by ECS Professor Stevan Harnad.
09/06/2007/ Excerpts from a summary of the JISC Conference on Digital Repositories: (Manchester 6 June 2007):
Andy Powell, Eduserv Foundation "Repositories Roadmap"... vision for 2010... is increasingly "not if, but when" newly published scholarly outputs [are] made... open access. [We need to] set a more ambitious target than that of a "high percentage"...
Dr Keith Jeffrey, Science and Technology Facilities Council : The benefits of open access repositories... include faster "research turnaround", improved quality for the originators of research... colleagues able to review the research more easily... improved quality for the community in general... [T]he development of repositories and the wider access to research outputs they enable should not be delayed by commercial interests. Dr Jeffrey then launched Depot, a national repository open to all UK authors to submit their research papers and other outputs into [right now, if their institution does not yet have its own Repository].
Professor Drummond Bone, President, Universities UK: UUK is "firmly behind" JISC's approach to the development of open access repositories, [which are] "vital to universities' economies and to the UK economy as a whole." [T]he benefits of repositories include improved efficiency of research processes, greater cooperation, improved learning and teaching, a commitment both to preservation and to wider access...
09/06/2007/ Open Research: 3rd London Conference on Opening Access to Research Publications Monday 11 June 2007, 13.00 - 16.30 SHERPA-LEAP London Eprints Access Project Brunei Gallery Lecture Theatre, SOAS, University of London
Full programme here. Among the speakers:
Dr Alma Swan, Director, Key Perspectives, UK The present Open Access landscape and what might be over the horizon
Dr David Prosser, Director, SPARC Europe, UK Repositories and research publications: policies and politics
Dr Frank Scholze, Stuttgart University, Germany Metrics in an Open Access environment: an infrastructure for collecting and aggregating usage data
06/06/2007/ British Classification Society Meeting "Analysis Methodologies for Post-RAE Scientometrics" Friday 6 July 2007, International Building room IN244 Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham
The selection of appropriate and/or best data analysis methodologies is a result of a number of issues: the overriding goals of course, but also the availability of well formatted, and ease of access to such, data. The meeting will focus on the early stages of the analysis pipeline. An aim of this meeting is to discuss data analysis methodologies in the context of what can be considered as open, objective and universal in a metrics context of scholarly and applied research.
Les Carr and Tim Brody (Intelligence, Agents, Media group, Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton): "Open Access Scientometrics and the UK Research Assessment Exercise"
01/06/2007/ Hélio Kuramoto of IBICT has helped to formulate a Proposed Law (introduced by Rodrigo Rollemberg, Member of Brazil's House of Representatives) that would require all Brazil's public institutions of higher education and research units to create OA institutional repositories and self-archive all their technical-scientific output therein.
There is also a petition in support of this Green OA Self-Archiving Mandate. All in favor of OA in Brazil (and worldwide) are urged to sign the petition here. Bravo to HK and RR for this timely and welcome step, setting an inspiring example for all. (Brazil's Auriverde -- Gold and Green -- flag is especially apposite for OA!)
02/06/2007 In Academics strike back at spurious rankings Nature 447, 514-515 (31 May 2007) D Butler, lists some of the (very valid) objections to the many unvalidated university rankings -- both subjective and objective -- that are in wide use today.
These problems are all the more reason for extending Open Access (OA) and developing OA scientometrics, which will provide open, validatable and calibratable metrics for research, researchers, and institutions in each field -- a far richer, more sensitive, and more equitable spectrum of metrics than the few, weak and unvalidated measures available today.
EPrints/Southampton's own OA scientometrics group (Les Carr, Tim Brody, Alma Swan, Stevan Harnad) (and UQaM, Canada), and our collaborators Charles Oppenheim (Loughborough) and Arthur Sale (Tasmania) are among those doing research in this important new area.
Harnad, S. (2007) Open Access Scientometrics and the UK Research Assessment Exercise. Invited Keynote, 11th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics. Madrid, Spain, 25 June 2007
03/05/2007 Both the Central Economics and Mathematics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Middle East Technical University of Turkey have adopted Open Access Self-Archiving Mandates and registered them in ROARMAP. Bravo to these institutions. Worldwide, that now makes:
11 institutional mandates, 3 departmental mandates, 12 funder mandates, 5 proposed funder mandates, 1 proposed multi-institutional mandate.
02/05/2007 From Driver News: "After the good news from Liège, Flanders now also has an OA mandate: the FWO (major Flemish research funding body) obliges its researchers to self-archive all articles coming from research funded by the FWO, in OA repositories... to increase visibility and impact." -- General Agreement for Researchers."
02/05/2007 EDINA, SHERPA and JISC have announced DEPOT, an important and timely central service for the UK, and a model for all countries worldwide that wish to provide Open Access to their research output.
DEPOT is many things, but chiefly a mediator for UK Institutional Repositories (IRs):
(a) If your institution already has an IR, Depot will redirect your deposit there, while also registering it and tracking it centrally, to make sure the deposit is picked up by the major search engines. (b) If your institution does not yet have an IR, you can deposit directly in Depot and Depot will provide access to your deposit until your institution has an IR, at which point it will transfer your deposit to your IR.
Depot is generated by Eprints software.
02/05/2007 There exists no recognized theme associated with Green OA self-archiving, no Green OA-specific interest group that is invited to represent Green OA at OA events. Richard Poynder, Napoleon Miradon and others have mooted the idea of a Green OA lobby. Creating such a lobby would be an excellent and timely idea and an appropriate reflection of the European and American petitions demonstrating the growing worldwide support for mandating Green OA.
04/04/2007 Alma Swan's article "Open Access and the Progress of Science" has just appeared in American Scientist (the journal) May-June Issue 2007.
You can join the American Scientist Open Access Forum and view the complete Hypermail archive of the ongoing AmSci Forum discussion (1998-2007) on providing open access to the peer-reviewed research literature online.
01/04/2007 Today two UK Research Councils, PPARC and CCLRC merged into a single Council: Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC). PPARC had already mandated Green OA Self-Archiving; CCLRC had "strongly encouraged" it. STFC mandates it. That means that instead of 5 out of 8 UK Research Councils mandating OA, 5 out of 7 now mandate OA. Worldwide, we have reached 23 Green OA Self-Archiving Mandates adopted (9 institutional, 3 departmental, 11 funder mandates, including the European Research Council) plus 6 more proposed (1 multi-institutional, 5 funder mandates), two of them (FRPAA in the US and EC A1 in Europe) big ones. See ROARMAP
29/03/2007 The UK Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) 2008 -- together with the growing movement toward making research Open Access -- offers a unique opportunity to test and validate a wealth of old and new scientometric predictors, through multiple regression analysis. Publications, journal impact factors, citations, co-citations, citation chronometrics (age, growth, latency to peak, decay rate), hub/authority scores, h-index, prior funding, student counts, co-authorship scores, endogamy/exogamy, textual proximity, download/co-downloads and their chronometrics, etc. can all be tested and validated jointly, discipline by discipline, against their RAE panel rankings in the forthcoming parallel panel-based and metric RAE in 2008. The weights of each predictor can be calibrated to maximize the joint correlation with the rankings. Open Access Scientometrics will provide powerful new means of navigating, evaluating, predicting and analyzing the growing Open Access database, as well as powerful incentives for making it grow faster.
Open Access Scientometrics and the UK Research Assessment Exercise to be presented at 11th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics, Madrid, Spain 25-27 June 2007.
Les Carr, head of University of Southampton's Eprints team announces the results of a poll of EC F6 projects on the EC Open Access Self-Archiving Mandate proposal (A1).
The results are as overwhelmingly positive as those of the parallel petition.
These results are to be announced in Brussels tomorrow (February 15).
On the same time day in the United States, there will be a "National Day of Action" by students in support of the FRPAA Open Access Self-Archiving Mandate Proposal.
On the eve of the Brussels EC meeting, the Budapest Open Access Initiative celebrates its fifth anniversary in Brussels:
Les Carr, EPrints, University of Southampton
"EP3 looks like a significant improvement over the earlier versions and a significant milestone in the journey towards the ideal repository software. EP3 addresses real issues for repository managers such as controlling quality, encouraging the take-up of self-deposit and embedding the repository in the broader institutional context. The deposit process in particular has been made more usable and user-friendly, thus removing one of the deterrents to self-deposition."
Report by Peter Millington and William J. Nixon Ariadne 50, January 2007
|Please sign the|
EC Open Access Petition
in support of the European Commission's proposed
Open Access Self-Archiving Mandate
A new version of the open access software EPrints, being launched today (24 January) in San Antonio, USA, takes its potential to a ‘new dimension’, according to EPrints Technical Director, Dr Leslie Carr.
Please sign OA petition.
The European Commission, the European Research Advisory Board (EURAB) and the European Research Councils have each recently recommended adopting the policy of providing Open Access to research results. (Very similar recommendations are also being made by governmental research organisations in the United States, Canada, Australia, and Asia). There are powerful non-research interests lobbying vigorously against these policy recommendations, so a display of support by the research community is critically important at this time. A consortium of European organisations -- JISC (Joint Information Systems Committee, UK), SURF (Netherlands), SPARC Europe, DFG (Deutsches Forschungsgemeinschaft, Germany), DEFF (Danmarks Elektroniske Fag- og Forskningsbibliotek, Denmark) -- is now sponsoring a petition to the European Commission to demonstrate support for these recommendations on the part of the European and worldwide research community. Signatures may be added by individual researchers or universities and research institutions. Researchers, lab directors, institutute directors, university research VPs and DVCs, are all strongly urged to register your support.
For Prosperity and Posterity:
Post Your Publications in 2007!
Full Size Original (600 x 420 mm)
Executed in gouache on black Canson Mi-Teintes pastel paper
using William Mitchell metal nibs, brushes and airbrush.
18/12/2006 "EPrints made author self-archiving viable on a global scale.... the first OAI-compliant software for creating a repository to become widely available. Now a mature and flexible application, EPrints ... has proven to be a very popular choice for IRs and enjoys wide use throughout the world. Eprints places a particular emphasis on making it easy to archive eprints, as opposed to other digital objects and data sets, but any kind of digital object can be archived. Usage statistics and email alerts are available. Many and varied instances of repositories have been implemented with EPrints, including consortial IRs, discipline-specific IRs, open access journals, and theses and dissertation repositories. EPrints is flexible enough to operate within portals. The EPrints developers also offer service and consulting packages, including assistance with training and policy development."
Parker, Carole A. (2006) Institutional Repositories and the Principle of Open Access: Changing the Way We Think About Legal Scholarship. New Mexico Law Review.
12/12/2006 "Respected Open Access journalist and blogger Richard Poynder interviews Professor Tony Hey of Microsoft and The University of Southampton on his career, his move to Microsoft, his stance on Open Source and Open Access.
"This interview was probably kick-started at least in part because Southampton's world class Institutional Repository package EPrints.org can now be run smoothly (I'm told) on Windows, and Microsoft's apparent interest in funding Open Source development work (but not GNU licenced work, only BSD or similar)."
[Reposted from here]
8/12/2006 On the good authority of Arthur Sale (and Peter Suber), the classification of the Australian Research Council (ARC) self-archiving policy in ROARMAP has been upgraded to a mandate. That makes 17 mandates worldwide, 5 of them in Australia: A departmental and university-wide one at U. Tasmania, a university-wide one at QUT, and a funder mandate at ARC, joined soon after by another funder mandate (NHMRC) and reinforced by the Research Quality Framework (RQF) (the Australian counterpart of the UK Research Assessment Exercise, RAE).
7/12/2006 The UK Research Assessment Exercise's forthcoming transition from time-consuming, cost-ineffective panel review to low-cost metrics is welcome, but there is still a top-heavy emphasis on the Prior-Funding metric. This will generate a Matthew-Effect/Self-Fulfilling Prophecy ("the rich get richer") and it will also collapse the UK Dual Funding System -- (1) competitive proposal-based funding plus (2) RAE performance-based, top-sliced funding -- into just a scaled up version of (1) alone. The RAE should commission rigorous, systematic studies, before and after RAE 2008, testing metric equations discipline by discipline. There are not just three but many potentially powerful and predictive metrics that could be used in these equations (e.g., citations, recursively weighted citations, co-citations, hub/authority indices, latency scores, longevity scores, downloads, download/citation correlations, endogamy/exogamy scores, and many more rich and promising indicators).The objective should be to maximise the depth, breadth, flexibility, predictive power and validity of the battery of metrics by testing, choosing and weighting the right combination for each discipline. More metrics are better than fewer, providing cross-checks, and triangulation will help catch anomalies, if any.
7/12/2006 University of Southampton's Archivangelist, Stevan Harnad, gave three talks at Indiana University on December 4-5:
(1) Maximising the Return on Resource Investment in Research at Indiana University by Mandating Self-Archiving
(2) Open Access Scientometrics
(3) Origins of Language
(Over a hundred thousand years ago, language evolved as a way of providing Open Access to the categories that human beings acquired. Publishing and providing online access to peer-reviewed research findings is just a natural -- indeed optimal and inevitable -- PostGutenberg upgrade of this ancestral adaptation.)
6/12/2006 Brunel University's School of Information Systems Computing and Mathematics has just adopted the 9th departmental/institutional self-archiving mandate for its IR, BURA. (Together with the 6 research funder mandates, that now makes 15 mandates worldwide, and the 8th for the UK.) This is an instance of Prof. Artur Sale's recommended "Patchwork Mandate": departments first, then the university as a whole.
If your own university or research institution has a self-archiving policy, please register it in ROARMAP (Registry of Open Access Repository Material Archiving Policies)
1/12/2006 U. Southampton's Alma Swan, Les Carr and Stevan Harnad gave talks at the 2nd Open Access Conference at U. Minho in Portugal, 27-28 November. The meeting was hosted by Eloy Rodrigues, founder of RepositoriUM, U. Minho's highly successful Institutional Repository, and one of the first to mandate self-archiving.
21/11/06 Two recent "accidents," at two different institutions, provide dramatic evidence of the power of the "EMAIL EPRINT" button. U. Southampton's university-wide IR has many deposits for which only the metadata are accessible, deposited via library mediation rather than by the authors themselves. This will soon change to direct author deposit, but meanwhile, "The Button" was implemented, and the result was such a huge flood of eprint requests that the proxy depositors were overwhelmed and the feature quickly had to be turned off! Much the same thing happened at UQaM but this time it was while a new IR was still under construction, and its designers were just testing out its features with dummy demo papers (some of them real!). "The Button" again unleashed an immediate torrent of eprint requests for the bona fide papers, so the feature had to be (tremulously, but temporarily) disabled!
The Button will of course be restored -- with the LDAP feature used to redirect the eprint requests to the authors rather than the library mediators -- but the accident was instructive in revealing the nuclear power of the button! Authors, we expect, will be gratified by the countable measures of interest in their work, and we will make a countable metric out of the number of eprint requests. Authors will be able to opt out of receiving eprint requests -- but we confidently expect that few will choose to do so! (Our confidence is based on many factors, take your pick: (1) Authors' known habit of looking first at the bibliography of any article or book in their field, to see "Do they cite me?" (2) Authors' known habit of googling themselves as well as looking up their own citation-counts in Web of Science and now in Google Scholar. (3) Employers' and funders' growing use of research performance metrics to supplement publication counts in employment, promotion and funding decisions...)
21/11/2006 In order to give everyone a clear update on progress in the growth of Instititutional Repositories (IRs) and in order to encourage others to create IRs, could you please register your IRs in the Registry of Open Access Repositories ROAR. And if your institution has a self-archiving policy, please register it in ROARMAP. Before registering your IR in ROAR, please check whether it is already registered! This is also a good time to try some of ROAR's powerful new features for monitoring IR growth.
From Peter Suber's Open Access News
The Australian Government Productivity Commission has released an important study, Public Support for Science and Innovation: Draft Research Report (November 2, 2006).
"ARC and the NHMRC... could require as a condition of funding that research papers, data and other information produced as a result of their funding are made publicly available such as in an "open access" repository...
Houghton et al. (2006) [suggested]:
- developing a national system of institutional or enterprise-based repositories to support new modes of enquiry and research; ...
- ensuring that the Research Quality Framework supports and encourages the development of new, more open scholarly communication mechanisms, rather than... a reliance by evaluators upon traditional publication metrics (for example, by ensuring dissemination and impact are an integral part of evaluation);
- encouraging funding agencies (for example, ARC and NHMRC) to mandate that the results of their supported research be made available in open access archives and repositories;
- encouraging universities and research institutions to support the development of new, more open scholarly communication mechanisms, through, for example, the development of "hard or soft open access" mandates for their supported research...
You are invited to examine this draft research study and to provide written submissions to the Commission: Science@pc.gov.au. Submissions should reach the Commission by Thursday, 21 December 2006.
Yet another brilliant and timely stroke from the Archivangelist of the Antipodes (who is rapidly gaining worldwide moral hegemony!):
Sale, Arthur (2006) The Patchwork Mandate. Working Paper. School of Computing, Australia
Arthur Sale is so right: Where the university's senior management are momentarily immovable, the right strategy is a promising individual department or two: The focussed outcome of a departmental mandate can be even faster and more dramatic than a university-wide one, serving as an irresistible stepping stone toward a university-wide mandate.
And there is supporting evidence: The outcome of the U. Tasmania SC and U. Southampton ECS departmental mandates, there to prove it works (and both of them leading to university-wide mandates thereafter).
Wednesday Nov 1, 2006.
There is no need for developing countries to wait for the developed countries to mandate Open Access (OA) self-archiving: They have more to gain because both their research access and their research impact are disproportionately low. At a two day workshop on research publication and OA at the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore on November 2-3, the three most research-active developing countries – India, China and Brazil – will frame the “Bangalore Commitment” to mandate OA self-archiving in their own respective countries and thereby set an example for emulation by the rest of the world.
U. Southampton ranks 3rd in the UK and 25th in the world in the G-factor International University Ranking, a measure of "the importance or relevance of the university from the combined perspectives of all of the leading universities in the world... as a function of the number of links to their websites from the websites of other leading international universities" compiled by University Metrics.
Why is U. Southampton's rank so remarkably high (second only to Cambridge and Oxford in the UK, and out-ranking the likes of Yale, Columbia and Brown in the US)?
Long practising what it has been preaching -- about maximising research impact through Open Access Self-Archiving -- is a likely factor. (This is largely a competitive advantage: Southampton invites other universities to come and level the playing field -- by likewise self-archiving their own research output!)
Bravo to the Particle Physics & Astronomy Research Council (PPARC): the 5th UK Research Council (and the 6th UK funder) to mandate OA self-archiving. CCLRC "strongly encourages" self-archiving, so that leaves only 2.5 of the 8 UK Research Councils to go. Of the 13 known self-archiving mandates, 7 -- including all the funder mandates -- are from the UK. Stand by for more UK announcements of individual University self-archiving mandates (and if your institution, anywhere, has adopted one, please register it in ROARMAP).
Sale, Arthur (2006) The Acquisition of Open Access Research Articles. First Monday 11(10) October: Three repositories with variants of a mandatory deposit policy are analyzed to see when researchers deposit their articles. It takes several years for a mandatory policy to be institutionalized and routinized, but once it has been, authors overwhelmingly deposit well before six months after publication date. The OA mantra of ‘deposit now, set open access when feasible’ is shown to be not only reasonable, but fitting what researchers actually do.
Sale, Arthur (2006) Comparison of content policies for institutional repositories in Australia. First Monday 11(4) April: An analysis of seven Australian universities shows that a requirement to deposit research output into a repository coupled with effective author support policies works in Australia and delivers high levels of content. Voluntary deposit policies do not, regardless of any author support by the university. This is consistent with international data.
Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) has proposed a 99.99% optimal Open Access Self-Archiving Mandate: CIHR grant holders must deposit final peer-reviewed full-text manuscripts in an [OAI]-compliant institutional repository or PubMed Central immediately upon publication. (A publisher-imposed embargo on open accessibility of no more than 6 months is acceptable.) Or they must publish in an OA journal. (CIHR also requires making research data and materials available for reasonable requests!) Bravo CIHR! (Send comments on CIHR Proposal (English - French) to firstname.lastname@example.org
The synthesis of the responses to the European Commission's (EC's) research-access related recommendations is alas so far still rather wishy-washy. One hopes that the EC will not lose sight of the fact that researchers (and their institutions and funders) are both the providers and the users of research (in generating further research as well as applications for the benefit of the tax-paying public that funds the research). Research is not done, or funded, in order to support the publishing industry. EC Recommendation A1 was for an Open Access Self-Archiving Mandate. That is a matter for the European Research Community to decide upon. It would be a great strategic mistake to let the publishing industry decide what the research community does in order to maximize the European tax-paying public's return on the euros it invests in supporting research. They are not in investing in the publishing industry, and far, far more is at stake than the publishing industry's concerns about possible risks to its revenue streams.
One year old this month, the Wellcome Trust's is still not the optimal Open Access (OA) self-archiving mandate because:
(1) it should instead require the depositing to be done in the author's own Institutional Repository (IR) (thereafter harvestable to PubMed Central therefrom) rather than requiring direct central deposit; and
(2) it should require the deposit to be done immediately upon acceptance for publication, permitting the 6-month delay only in the setting of Access to Open Access (versus Closed Access), rather than permitting the depositing itself to be delayed.
But it's a damn good mandate just the same, and an inspiration and encouragement to research funders and research institutions the world over (as long as it's upgraded to include (1) and (2))!
[Click for full text] With Open Access Self-Archiving Mandates so near, it is time to think of optimizing them: WHAT: The primary target content is the author's final, peer-reviewed draft ("postprint") of all journal articles accepted for publication. WHY: The purpose of mandating OA self-archiving is to maximize research usage and impact by maximizing user access to research findings. WHERE: The optimal locus for self-archiving is the author's own OAI-compliant Institutional Repository (IR). WHEN: The author's final, peer-reviewed draft (postprint) should be deposited in the author's IR immediately upon acceptance for publication. HOW: Depositing a postprint in an author's IR and keying in its metadata (author, title, journal, date, etc.) takes less than 10 minutes per paper.
[Click for full text] Institutional self-archiving and central self-archiving are at odds in the quest for a universal self-archiving policy solution that will cover all OA research output. It would be awkward and inefficient to have a different external cross-institution CR as the locus of primary deposit for every funding area, subject area, combination of subject areas, or nation. Researchers' own IRs are the most natural and efficient way to scale up to covering all of OA space from all disciplines, institutions and nations. Direct central self-archiving is already obsolete in the OAI era of interoperable OAI-compliant IRs. The optimal solution is for researchers to self-archive their own papers in their own OAI-compliant IRs and for CRs to be harvested from those distributed IRs. Universities are in the best position to mandate self-archiving and monitor and reward compliance. Mandating self-archiving in CRs instead simply creates an unsystematic and incoherent policy that does not scale up to covering all research output from all research institutions. What the NIH, Wellcome Trust and MRC should be mandating is not direct depositing in PubMed Central, but universal depositing in the fundee's own IR, from which PubMed Central can then harvest collections.
A series of cartoons has just been created by Judith Economos to illustrate "Publish or Perish" (in support of Open Access).
Bilingual (French/English) version « Publier ou périr » : PDF or Powerpoint
English-only version: PDF or Powerpoint Please feel free to use them to promote Open Access! (Recommended background soundtrack: Beatbox)
In a detailed technical evaluation of Open Source software for Open Access Repositories in New Zealand (OARINZ), EPrints, DSpace and Fedora were compared on a series of criteria with a view to (1) the establishment of a national network of Institutional Repositories, (2) support for individual institutional initiatives, and (3) adoption of a “common road map.”
For a national network, the report recommended Fedora, but it went on to recommend:
"EPrints [as] the best candidate for a self-configuring solution for institutions wanting to set up and host their own repository. Publication to the national network would be accommodated through the OAI harvester at the national hub retrieving the metadata from these institutions."This is precisely the niche that EPrints was designed to occupy and precisely the role that it was designed to perform from its inception in 2000: a free, powerful but simple out-of-the-box software dedicated specifically to creating OAI-compliant Institutional Repositories in which to deposit all institutional research output in order to make it Open Access. EPrints can then serve as the Open Access Research component of any larger digital portal solution desired (e.g., Fedora), at an institutional, central or national level.
More and more US university presidents and provosts are signing to support the proposed FRPAA self-archiving mandate. Let us hope that they will not now sit waiting for the Act to pass, but will also go on to sign a self-archiving mandate for each of their own respective universities -- and then register their policy in ROARMAP for other universities to emulate. (The Immediate-Deposit/Optional-Access [ID/OA] mandate is the optimal policy to adopt -- infinitely preferable to the "Optional Delayed Deposit" mandates that are currently being contemplated instead of giving the details deeper and more careful thought.)
(UK vice-chancellors and pro-vice-chancellors should hasten to adopt ID/OA too, now that half the RCUK research councils and the Wellcome Trust have already mandated self-archiving! The European Commission is next...)
Maureen Pennock, University of Bath, has done a review of the EPrints software at the Digital Curation Centre website.
"The EPrints software package was originally designed for creating and managing open access institutional repositories of research papers and publications. It is widely implemented and is now used to store and manage a much broader range of content types and for different purposes."
"The EPrints development team are proponents of open access and 'self-archiving', a deposit philosophy whereby authors deposit their own works and metadata in a preferably OAI-PMH (Open Archives Initiative — Protocol for Metadata Harvesting) compliant EPrints repository. The deposit process reflects this aim, as it is very straightforward to encourage authors to deposit their works (although in practice, intermediaries are often the main depositors)."
"EPrints has been installed and is running in over two hundred repository systems worldwide."
In a recent preprint, Houghton & Sheehan (2006), Centre for Strategic Economic Studies, Victoria University, Australia, using estimates from economic modeling, have confirmed the substantial potential enhancement of the return on resource investment in research if the resulting articles are made Open Access:
"Whether applied across the board or to sector specific research findings (e.g. open access to publicly funded research) it seems that there may be substantial potential benefits to be gained from more open access. For example... With the United Kingdom's [Gross Expenditure on Research and Development] at US $33.7 billion and assuming social returns to R&D of 50%, a 5% increase in access and efficiency would have been worth US $1.7 billion."
Research Funding Councils and Universities worldwide are at last beginning to realise that it is high time (indeed well overdue) to maximise the returns on their research investment by mandating Open Access self-archiving.
The poem, "Publish or Perish," based on the symposium Publish or perish: self-archive to flourish, has won the (English-language category) prize in the Euroscience Open Forum (ESOF2006) Poetry Competition, sponsored by the Adrian von Braun Stiftung. The award of 300 euros has been donated by the author to the US Alliance for Tax-Payer Access in support of their efforts to promote the adoption of the Federal Research Public Access Act (FRPAA) in America: With Open Access (OA) self-archiving mandates now well on their way in the UK, it's time for Euroscience euros to reach across the Atlantic to help spread OA to the entire planet...
Should traditional publishing be combined with open access (OA)? What are the issues facing institutions and researchers in implementing OA? At this symposium, experts and institutions committed to encouraging their researchers to provide OA to their research output will discuss: self-archiving as a supplement to rather than a substitute for publishing in traditional peer-reviewed journals; how self-archiving increases research impact; and the role of scientific institutions and institutional policies in creating and filling the OA archives.
Euroscience Open Forum 2006, July 16, 17:15-18:30 Forum am Deutschen Museum, Room "Solaris," Munich, GERMANY
Organizers: Helene Bosc (INRA) & Pierre Baruch (Paris VII)
Chairman: Stevan Harnad (UQaM, Southampton)
Participants: Eberhard Hilf (Oldenburg), Eloy Rodrigues (Minho), Alma Swan (Key Perspectives, UK)
A new book to be published 17th July 2006 -- "Open Access: Key Strategic, Technical and Economic Aspects" (Neil Jacobs, Ed. Oxford: Chandos Publishing 2006) -- documents the major strands and issues of Open Access. It covers the rationale, history, economics, technology and culture of open access, views from major stakeholders, updates from around the world, and visions of the future.
GNU Eprints and/or U. Southampton ECS authors (5 of the 21 chapters): Tim Brody, Les Carr, Stevan Harnad, Alma Swan, Nigel Shadbolt
Other contributors: Chris Awre, Charles W. Bailey, Jr., Matthew Cockerill, Frederick J. Friend, Jean-Claude Guédon, Robert Kiley, Michael Kurtz, Clifford Lynch, Andrew Odlyzko, Ramesh C. Parmar, K. Sahu, Arthur Sale, John Shipp, D. Colin Steele, Peter Suber, Robert Terry, Mary Waltham, Leo Waaijers
Bravo UK! Although we had rather hoped for a more concerted consensus from Research Councils UK (RCUK), nevertheless, with three out of the eight UK councils mandating Open Access Self-Archiving, one strongly encouraging it, and four not yet decided, that is still enough to restore the UK's commanding lead in worldwide OA Policy today. See the 2003 UK Government Science and Technology Committee report that led to the RCUK policy and how the University of Southampton's Department of Electronics and Computer Science helped shape its outcome.
All objections to the U.S. Federal Research Public Access Act (FRPAA) proposal to mandate OA self-archiving can be decisively answered. EPrints has provided the 8-point rebuttal to the objections of the publishing lobby. EPrints has also provided policy advice -- the dual immediate-deposit + optional-release policy -- as well as the Institution Repository software's semi-automatised email-eprint feature to help tide over any embargo period.
The US Federal Research Public Access Act (FRPAA) has gone a long way toward correcting the fundamental flaws of the NIH Public Access Policy: (1) FRPAA self-archiving is no longer requested but mandated. (2) The absolute time limit on the FRPAA self-archiving is no longer at most 12 months from publication but at most 6. (3) FRPAA no longer stipulates that the self-archiving must be central: the deposit can now be in the author's own Institutional Repository (IR). (4) Self-archiving is no longer just for biomedical sciences, but for the full FRPAA spectrum of major US-funded research, in all funded fields.
The remedy for the FRPAA's sole remaining flaw (the fact that an embargo of up to 6 months is still allowed)is to mandate that all articles must be deposited immediately upon acceptance for publication: the only allowable delay, if any, can only be in the moment when access to the deposit is set to Open Access (not in the moment when it is deposited). This allows authors to use their IRs' new "email eprint" deposit to provide immediate email access for all would-be users during any delay period: Eprints version; Dspace version.
EPrints repositories can be part of the Semantic Web in a real and practical way thanks to Nature Publishing Group and its free Connotea online reference management service. This service enables users to publicly bookmark and tag articles from within EPrints repositories with remarkable potential to expand the visibility and findability of those articles.
John Willinsky's (2005) excellent book on Open Access, The Access Principle, is now available Open Access. Its only shortcoming is that it makes absolutely no mention of its predecessor, the very first book on Open Access, edited by Okerson & O'Donnell (1995), published over a decade earlier, and likewise available Open Access: Scholarly Journals at the Crossroads: A Subversive Proposal for Electronic Publishing.
As predicted, and long urged, the UK's wasteful, time-consuming Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) is to be replaced by metrics: This represents a great boost for institutional self-archiving in Open Access Institutional Repositories, not only because that is the obvious, optimal means of submission to the new metric RAE, but because it is also a powerful means of maximising research impact, i.e., maximising those metrics: (Let's hope Research Councils UK (RCUK) is listening!).
The European Commission is recommending that publicly funded research should be self-archived in the fundee's Institutional Repository after "a (possibly domain-specific) time period to be discussed with publishers." This recommendation can be made far more effective if the research is deposited immediately upon acceptance for publication and only the setting of the access-privileges is delayed by "a (possibly domain-specific) time period to be discussed with publishers."
A new feature built into EPrints software could dramatically increase the rate of growth of open access (OA) content deposited in institutional repositories while, perversely it seems, allowing authors to opt out of providing OA. It's extremely simple, and if implemented carefully by the repository can produce immediate results without additional cost or resource implications.
Start any institutional repository (IR) with EPrints, recommends Professor Arthur Sale of the University of Tasmania (UTas), Australia. In a paper presented to institutions in New Zealand, Sale reports on the widely-used software packages for building IRs, favouring Southampton's EPrints because of speed of set-up, ease of use, and minimal costs for running and maintaining a server. "It just works. No fuss. No maintenance. It's just too easy".
In a move to make scientific research more freely available, the University of Southampton is running a series of training courses for those planning to set up institutional repositories.
The University, one of the key players in the global Open Access movement, has launched EPrints Services, to provide a range of advice, support, and practical help to all those planning to set up, or maintaining, an institutional research repository.
The UK is losing around £1.5 billion annually in the potential impact of its scientific research expenditure, according to one of the key figures in the global open access publishing movement. Professor Stevan Harnad, Moderator of the American Scientist Open Access Forum and Professor of Cognitive Science at the University of Southampton's School of Electronics and Computer Science, has calculated the potential return on the investment in scientific research findings that are being lost to the UK each year through the limitations of the current academic publishing environment.
Academics from some of the UK’s top universities are giving public support to the UK Research Councils’ (RCUK) proposed self-archiving policy. The academics, who include inventor of the World Wide Web, Southampton Professor Sir Tim Berners-Lee, have co-signed a document refuting claims made by the Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers (ALPSP) that the RCUK policy would have ‘disastrous consequences’ for journals.
JISC international study by Swan & Brown KeyPerspectives Inc.) found over 80 per cent of academic researchers the world over would willingly comply with a mandate to deposit copies of their articles in an institutional repository. Reported at
International Conference on Policies and strategies for Open Access to Scientific Information Beijing, China June 22-24, 2005
(Press Release from U. Southampton)
A summary of even older news is available